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Semi-technical account includes a review of classical physics (origin of space and time measurements, Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomy, laws of motion, inertia, more) and of Einstein's theories of relativity.
The purposes of this book are (1) to explore and expound relativity physics and four-dimensional symmetry from the logically simplest viewpoint by making one single postulate instead of two; and (2) to indicate the simplest generalization of the Lorentz transformation in order to cope with frames with constant linear accelerations. The fundamentally new ideas of the first purpose are developed on the basis of the term paper of a Harvard physics undergraduate. They lead to an unexpected affirmative answer to the long-standing question of whether it is possible to construct a relativity theory without postulating the constancy of the speed of light and retaining only the first postulate of special relativity. This question was discussed in the early years following the discovery of special relativity by many physicists, including Ritz, Tolman, Kunz, Comstock and Pauli, all of whom obtained negative answers. Furthermore, the new theory of relativity indicates the truly universal and fundamental constants in physics, and provides a broad view of relativistic physics beyond special relativity. It substantiates the view and sheds light on the understanding that the four-dimensional symmetry framework can accommodate many different concepts of physical time, including common time and Reichenbach's general concept of time. This logically simplest viewpoint of relativity allows a natural extension of the physics of particles and fields from inertial frames to noninertial frames in which the speed of light is not constant. New predictions in physics resulting from this new viewpoint are discussed. The book is based on papers by the author and his collaborators in Physics Letters A, Nuovo Cimento B, and Physical Review A and D. Contents:A Brief Review of Space and TimeThe Nontrivial Pursuit of Earth's Absolute MotionOn the Right Track — Voigt, Lorentz and LarmorePoincaré's Contributions and the Aether (Past and Present)Young Einstein's Novel Creation Based on 2 PostulatesMinkowski's 4-Dimensional Spacetime, Adjustable Clocks and Flexibility in the Concept of TimeTaiji Relativity Based Solely on 1 Principle — the First Principle of RelativityThe Arbitrary Speed of Light in Taiji Relativity and the Michelson-Morley ExperimentLorentz and Poincaré Invariance Without Involving a Constant Corresponding to the Speed of LightTruly Universal Constants and Physical Laws Based on Taiji RelativityQuantum Electrodynamics Based on Taiji Relativity and Dilatation of Lifetimes and Decay-LengthsCommon Relativity: A Common Time for all ObserversCommon Time and Many-Particle Systems in a 4-Dimensional Symmetry FrameworkCommon Relativity and Quantum MechanicsCommon Relativity and Fuzzy Quantum Field TheoryCommon Relativity and the 3 K Cosmic Background RadiationExtended Relativity: A Weaker Postulate for the Speed of LightExtended Relativity with the Lorentz Group and Lifetime DilatationPhysical Implications of Extended RelativityDetermination of the Parameters of General Linear Transformations by Precision ExperimentsGeneralized Lorentz Transformations for Non-Inertial Frames Based on the Limiting 4-Dimensional SymmetryDynamics of Classical and Quantum Particles in Non-Inertial Frames with the Limiting 4-Dimensional SymmetryExperimental Tests of Generalized Lorentz Transformations for Constant-Linear-Acceleration FramesQuantizations of Scalar, Spinor and Electromagnetic Fields in Constant-Linear-Acceleration FramesTaiji Rotational Transformations with the Limiting 4-Dimensional Symmetry Readership: Theoretical, high-energy and experimental physicists. Keywords:Space;Time;Spacetime;Relativity;Lorentz;Poincare;Einstein;Minkowski;Symmetry;Invariance;Light;JP HsuReviews: “Hsu's book shows many new aspects of Einstein's theory which are not taught in lectures or by any other books on this subject … His understanding and appreciation of physics together with his unconventional style of writing make, in my opinion, the book worth reading for every physicist who is interested in Special Relativity.” Andreas Ernst University of Heidelberg Heidelberg, Germany
This book introduces the general theory of relativity and includes applications to cosmology. The book provides a thorough introduction to tensor calculus and curved manifolds. After the necessary mathematical tools are introduced, the authors offer a thorough presentation of the theory of relativity. Also included are some advanced topics not previously covered by textbooks, including Kaluza-Klein theory, Israel's formalism and branes. Anisotropic cosmological models are also included. The book contains a large number of new exercises and examples, each with separate headings. The reader will benefit from an updated introduction to general relativity including the most recent developments in cosmology.
CHOICE Highly Recommended Title, August 2019 Expertly guided by renowned cosmologist Dr. David Lyth, learn about the pioneering scientists whose work provided the foundation for Einstein’s formulation of his theories of relativity, and about Einstein's groundbreaking life and work as well. This highly readable and accessible panorama of the field delicately balances history and science as it takes the reader on an adventure through the centuries. Without complex mathematics or scientific formulae, this book will be of interest to all, even those without a scientific background, who are intrigued to find out more about what paved the way for one of our most famous physicists to push the boundaries of physics to new lengths. Features: Written by an internationally renowned physicist and cosmologist Describes the life and times of Einstein and his important predecessors Focuses on one of the most famous areas of science, Einstein’s Relativity Theory
Albert Einstein, one of the most prolific scientists of the twentieth century, developed the theory of relativity which was crucial for the advancement of modern physics. Young Einstein identified a paradox between Newtonian Mechanics and Maxwell’s equations which pointed to a flawed understanding of space and time by the scientists of the day. In Relativity, Einstein presents his findings using a minimal amount of mathematical language, but the text can still be challenging for readers who lack an extensive scientific background. The Routledge Guidebook to Einstein’s Relativity expands on and supplements this seminal text, by exploring: the historical context of Einstein’s work and the background to his breakthroughs details of experimental verification of special and general relativity the enduring legacy of Einstein’s theories and their implications for future scientific breakthroughs. This is an essential introduction for students of physics, philosophy and history in understanding the key elements of the work and the importance of this classic text to society today.
Einstein's theory of general relativity is a theory of gravity and, as in the earlier Newtonian theory, much can be learnt about the character of gravitation and its effects by investigating particular idealised examples. This book describes the basic solutions of Einstein's equations with a particular emphasis on what they mean, both geometrically and physically. Concepts such as big bang and big crunch-types of singularities, different kinds of horizons and gravitational waves, are described in the context of the particular space-times in which they naturally arise. These notions are initially introduced using the most simple and symmetric cases. Various important coordinate forms of each solution are presented, thus enabling the global structure of the corresponding space-time and its other properties to be analysed. The book is an invaluable resource both for graduate students and academic researchers working in gravitational physics.
This book pieces together the jigsaw puzzle of Einstein’s journey to discovering the special theory of relativity. Between 1902 and 1905, Einstein sat in the Patent Office and may have made calculations on old pieces of paper that were once patent drafts. One can imagine Einstein trying to hide from his boss, writing notes on small sheets of paper, and, according to reports, seeing to it that the small sheets of paper on which he was writing would vanish into his desk-drawer as soon as he heard footsteps approaching his door. He probably discarded many pieces of papers and calculations and flung them in the waste paper basket in the Patent Office. The end result was that Einstein published nothing regarding the special theory of relativity prior to 1905. For many years before 1905, he had been intensely concerned with the topic; in fact, he was busily working on the problem for seven or eight years prior to 1905. Unfortunately, there are no surviving notebooks and manuscripts, no notes and papers or other primary sources from this critical period to provide any information about the crucial steps that led Einstein to his great discovery. In May 1905, Henri Poincaré sent three letters to Hendrik Lorentz at the same time that Einstein wrote his famous May 1905 letter to Conrad Habicht, promising him four works, of which the fourth one, Relativity, was a rough draft at that point. In the May 1905 letters to Lorentz, Poincaré presented the basic equations of his 1905 “Dynamics of the Electron”, meaning that, at this point, Poincaré and Einstein both had drafts of papers relating to the principle of relativity. The book discusses Einstein’s and Poincaré’s creativity and the process by which their ideas developed. The book also explores the misunderstandings and paradoxes apparent in the theory of relativity, and unravels the subtleties and creativity of Einstein.
Clear, concise exposition of both the special and general theories of relativity, intended for nonscientific readers with a knowledge of high school math. Topics include simultaneity, time dilation, length contraction, the possibility of travel to a distant star, non-Euclidean geometries, black holes, and the structure of the universe. 158 illustrations.
An astrophysicist offers an entertaining introduction to Einstein's theories, explaining how well they have held up to rigorous testing over the years, and even describing the amazing phenomena readers would actually experience if they took a trip through a black hole.